Dodatni Simboli za Pneumatike

0 degree coverage

0 degree coverage from Michelin stops wide base tyres losing their shape at high speed due to a variable fibre geometry in the nylon cord.


4 wheel drive

On a 4 wheel drive vehicle, all 4 wheels can move the car, in contrast to a front or rear wheel drive car. Some vehicles have permanent 4 wheel drive, others have selectable 4 wheel drive. Driving power can be spread differently over the front and rear axle.



This marking is found on the side wall of original tyres supplied with Audi models. These tyres have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements of the car manufacturer.
We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
Caution: Tyres marked AOE indicate emergency running properties, and may not be combined with other tyres marked A or AO, see Runflat.
Please note: Tyres with this marking can also be used with other vehicles.


A/T (All Terrain)

Off road vehicles which are frequently used on rough terrain must be fitted with special off-road tyres. As the name suggest, all-terrain tyres get you through all kinds of surface, whether it’s mud, snowy forest tracks or a country road littered with potholes.
Please note: These tyres come in both imperial and flotation dimensions.


ABE: General operating licence

An ABE or General Operating Licence (GOL) is required for registration of a production car and to allow it to drive on public roads. The official documentation for this General Operating Licence is the vehicle registration document or licence certificate. This document includes information about engine capacity, number of seats, code numbers, or towing capacity, and also any changes made to the vehicle with official TÜV approval (wide tyres, parts added to the bodywork and so on). If any changes were made to the vehicles and not noted in the vehicle registration document, this will cause the General Operating Licence to lapse and will be sanctioned accordingly. Caution: If unapproved wheels or tyres are used, then the entire vehicle licence certificate will lapse alongside the operating licence including insurance cover!
Please note: In relation to alloy wheels “ABE” is commonly used to mean “approved for General Operating Licence”, which allows use of these wheels on special editions of the vehicle in question.


Abrasions caused by braking

Abrasions caused by braking can arise when brakes are fully applied (particularly without ABS). Here, the wheel locks completely and skids over the road. The profile on the contact area is eroded by the extreme heat and abrasion - which means the tyre is no longer round and must be replaced.


ABS: Anti-lock braking system

The anti-lock braking system (ABS) sometimes called the anti-lock limiter, stops the wheels locking up when the brakes are fully applied. This means the vehicle can still be steered properly. An electronic device controls the revolutions of all the wheels via wheel rev sensors, compares these with each other, and adapts their behaviour to the speed of travel. If the revs of one or all the wheels drop out of proportion to the others, the electronics pick up the risk of locking and immediately reduce the hydraulic pressure in the brake line of the wheel in question. Depending on the construction of the ABS, the hydraulic unit generally contains three or four channels to the individual brake cylinders. In dry, damp and wet conditions, the braking distance is generally shorter than for the same vehicle without ABS. On fresh snow or loose chippings, the braking distance with ABS may be slightly longer.
Please note: In an emergency, press down hard on the brake pedal and do not be put off by any pulsing of the pedal.



A variety of factors can influence the ageing process of a tyre: Humidity, UV radiation, heat, cold etc.
In order to avoid a reduction in performance, other substances are mixed with the rubber compound to significantly slow down the ageing process. However, you should replace your old tyres with new ones after ten years at the latest. It is a natural process for rubber to age, during which its elasticity and grip can change. This is a very slow process, and can be delayed further by special anti-ageing materials in tyres. However, a pristine spare tyre which has been lying in your boot for over 6 years, should not be used together with completely new tyres.


Air loss

The words ”Air Loss” immediately make you think of a sudden, obvious or gradual loss of air, such as that caused by a puncture.
However, air pressure goes down continually even without any outside influence, as the inner liner of a tyre can never be sealed 100%. The following rule of thumb applies: Check your tyre pressure every other time you refuel. This is also possible when the tyres are filled with a special gas (e.g. nitrogen). However the special effect of the gas gradually disappears as you top up with normal air.


Air pressure

The correct air pressure is critically important for the mileage and life span of the tyres, as well as driving safety. If tyre pressure in the tyres is tool low, it can lead to poor weight distribution and overheating, or even to the risk that the tyre may blow out. In addition, rolling resistance is increased, leading to an increase in fuel consumption. Regular studies have shown that approximately only one in four cars on the road has the correct air pressure. You will find the air pressure recommended by the manufacturer in the vehicle’s instruction manual, and also on the fuel fill flap or on the side of the door. Air pressure should be checked at every other stop at a service station, or at least every four weeks. Tyres must be checked when cold, as warm tyres have a higher pressure. Therefore: never release air from a warm tyre! Under certain circumstances, wide tyres require different air pressure to standard tyres, in this case please make sure to consider the information in the user manual or from the tyre manufacturer.


Air pumping

Air pumping is the specialist term used for air pumping out of tyres when the tyre is rolling. The weight of the vehicle presses the tyre onto the road with great force, so that air flows at great speed our of the tread channels when the tyres rotate. At high speed, whistling and hissing sounds can occur, which can however be reduced by skilled variations tread design.


All year, all season, all weather tyres

In the car area, so called all-weather or all year tyres are available as well as summer and winter tyres. All weather tyres must be marked with the symbol “M+S”, just like winter tyres. Manufacturer names such as “Allweather” or “All season” signify what is also meant by special symbols on the side of the tyre: Snowflake, leaf, sun and raindrop symbolise the different types of weather conditions which the all weather tyres are suitable for.
Naturally these tyres represent a compromise - they don’t reach the high standard of driving properties of summer tyres in warm weather and dry conditions or those of winter tyres in the cold and snow. All weather tyres are an option for motorists who live in a relatively flat area, and can occasionally leave their car at home in extreme weather conditions.
Please note: If an all weather tyre is not available in a certain size, a winter tyre can be used in its place.


Aluminium rims

Aluminium rims are rims which are made from aluminium alloy - not from pure aluminium. Pure aluminium is too soft to guarantee the strength required and meet the challenges of driving on the road.
In contrast to steel rims, alloy wheels are available in almost any size or width. So you can only get 22, 23 or 24 inch rims as alloy wheels.
Alloy wheels add value to any car due to their design. Many are more suitable for summer, as they more sensitive to road salt than steel wheels due to their finish. However, special winter alloys with a winter resistant coating are available.



These abbreviations stand for Aston Martin specifications. These tyres have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements of the car manufacturer. We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
Please note: Tyres with this marking can also be used with other vehicles.


Anti theft lug nuts / bolts

An anti theft lug nut or bolt is a wheel nut or bolt which protects the wheel from theft. It can only be unscrewed with a special key.



Aquaplaning occurs when the grooves in the tyre can no longer lead the water under the tyre contact area to the outside. The tyres then float on the film of water, so braking power and steering power are no longer applied to the driving surface.
Aquaplaning can be recognised by light steering, spinning drive wheels with high engine revs, and the sound of water under the car. Anyone who finds themselves unexpectedly aquaplaning should not try to brake under any circumstances, but should instead depress the clutch and keep the steering wheel in the direction of travel. The wheels must not lock, or be pointing in the wrong direction when they come into contact with the road again. Drivers of automatics should concentrate on their steering and not attempt to change the driving mode. The following applies in the rain: Drive carefully!



Asymmetrical tyres have an inner and an outer side. This is indicated by the words “Inside”/”SFI” and “Outside”/”SFO” on the side walls.
After fitting, the wheels can be used in any position on the vehicle, in contrast to directional tyres. However, the side initially chosen to be the axle side should be kept with subsequent changes of wheel, as tyres always wear slightly unevenly due to direction and vehicle set up, and so adapt perfectly to the road.
The profile of asymmetric tyres is designed differently on the inner and outer shoulders: Whereas the profile on the inner shoulder provides traction and straight running, the profile on the outer shoulder is designed for optimal steering and stability when cornering.


Axle position

When changing a wheel, you should bear in mind the axle position, as this indicates what position a wheel was fitted in, or should be fitted in. Regardless of the type of drive, forces affect each wheel differently. As a rule of thumb you can say that tyres with deeper tread belong on the rear axle.
So the position of the wheels may be changed to use them evenly, e.g from FL to RL or FR to RR. The axle side initially chosen should stay the same, as the tyres adapt to the axle geometry. This guarantees the optimum contact area. Directional tyres must always be kept on the original axle side.


B, B1, BC, BL

These abbreviations stand for Bentley specifications. These tyres have been developed according to certain requirements of the car manufacturer. They are specially aligned to the manufacturer’s chassis and from part of the vehicle’s original equipment.

We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
Please note: Tyres with this marking can also be used with other vehicles.


Balloon tyres

With balloon tyres, the ratio of height to width is 0.98 :1. They offer good suspension, but poor cornering properties.
Balloon tyres are no longer common on modern cars. They are only used with vintage cars and as specialist tyres.



Bar is the legal unit of measurement for pressure. This is the unit of measure commonly used for tyre pressure and replaces the unit “physical atmosphere” (atm).
One mbar corresponds to 100 Pascal.


BDS-Lamellas, Bi-directional system

Michelin’s bi-directional system (BDS) is a special lamella system where the lamellas go in two different directions. Because of their arrangement they are also called “Z-Lamellas”. These lamellas block each other when braking and accelerating, leading to better handling.
BDS-Lamellas are used on the Michelin Alpin and Pilot Alpin winter tyres amongst others.



The bead or inner ring on the side of the tyre contains strong wire cores and has the task of ensuring the tyre sits securely on the rim.


Belt displacement

In a tyre where the pressure it too low, the increase in flexing can give rise to temperatures up to 120° C. Particularly in the shoulder area, this can lead to overheating of materials, causing parts of the running surface to displace.


Belted tyres, steel belt tyres

In belted tyres, the fabric is reinforced with metal wires and textile bands which go round the tyre like a belt. In belted tyres, the fabric is perpendicular to the direction of travel. The belt, which goes over the fabric in line with the direction of travel gives the belted tyre similar side wall strength to a diagonal tyre, but they are generally more flexible and thus less liable to slip on wet roads.
The big advantage of belted tyres in their more stable running surface, giving them better road-holding. A car with belted tyres will corner better, has better braking distances, drives more safely on wet roads - and the tyres also last longer, but all at the cost of comfort.
Caution: Steel belts can rust. This means any tyre with deep damage to the surface such that moisture (even air humidity) could get to the steel wire must be taken out of circulation immediately.



Bib Mousse is a foam rubber ring which acts as puncture preventing replacement for inner tubes on motorbike tyres. A new Bib Mousse ring is equivalent to a reinforced tube with 0.9 bar pressure.
Caution: The Michelin Bib Mouse is not authorised for use on the road, and may only be fitted in Michelin tyres!



The science of bionics is concerned with how we can learn from nature, and how we can transfer what we have learned to technology and new developments,
So for example, we can minimise the air resistance of tyres with a surface similar to sharkskin.



BioTred is the name given to a tread compound from Goodyear, which contains a corn starch component. This makes it possible to produce tyres in an environmentally friendly way. It also reduces rolling resistance, saving fuel and money.
BioTred 2 is based on a palm oil derivative, which is used instead of crude oil derivatives such as carbon black.


BLT: Raised Black Lettering

Special design of side wall lettering, slightly raised black letters.


Bolt cirle holes

The number of holes indicates the number of wheel bolts or nuts used to attach a rim to the vehicle. Often 4-5 wheel bolts or nuts are used, however a minimum of 3 - on lorries there may also be more.


Braking distance

The distance between pressing the brake and the vehicle coming to a complete stop is known as the braking distance. Several factors influence the braking distance: Driver reaction time and length of braking, brake system reaction time, road conditions (type, wet), weight of the vehicle, condition of the tyres (manufacture, depth of profile, pressure) and speed.


BSL: Black Serrated Lettering

Special design of side wall lettering, serrated letters.


BST: Black Serrated Lettering

Special design of side wall lettering. The lettering is serrated inside the edge.


BSW: Black Sidewall

Special design of the side wall. Tyres with a black side wall.


C tyres

Reinforced tyres for light lorries, vans and good vehicles are known as C tyres. Depending on the manufacturer, the “C” stands for “Commercial” or “Cargo” but they both relate to the same thing. On many C tyres there is a double marking for the maximum load for single or twin tyre formations.
Originally, the abbreviation “PR” was located on the side wall of tyres for good vehicles. This refers to the Ply Rating, which formerly indicated the number of body ply cords, thus representing the load bearing capacity. which is nowadays shown by the load index for vans or goods vehicles. So tyres with 8PR rating had a higher load-bearing capacity than 6PR tyres.
When selecting tyres for a goods vehicle, the primary considerations are construction type and load index.
Caution: RF-/XL tyres and LT tyre are not C tyres, even if they resemble them with regard to size and load index. Therefore you should check the paperwork for your vehicle or ask the manufacturer which tyres you can use.
In contrast, the abbreviation “CP” stands for “Camping”. This refers to C tyres which are optimised for the particular requirements of mobile homes, such as long standing times.
In contrast, the abbreviation “CP” stands for “Camping”. This refers to C tyres which are optimised for the particular requirements of mobile homes, such as long standing times.



Calender is an expression used in the manufacture of tyres. It refers to a beading system where the cord fibres are coated thinly on both sides with rubber.



The inclination (angling) of wheels towards each other, when viewed in the direction of travel, is known as camber. It is shown as the angle of the plane of the wheel to the vertical plane with respect to the ground. If the inclination towards the top points outwards, the camber is positive. This suppresses the tendency to flutter. If the wheels point inwards at the top, the camber is negative, leading to increased lateral control.



This essential element of the load bearing sub-structure of the tyre gives the tyre its strength and ensures it stays together. Nowadays, carcasses consist of a plastic and cotton fibre fabric or steel cord, embedded in the rubber.


Centrifugal force

Centrifugal force is the force which pushes the vehicle outwards when cornering. The greater the weight of the car and the speed, the greater the centrifugal force.


CH: Hydrocarbon

Hydrocarbons (CH) are present in emissions in many variations. There is a corresponding variety of odours (aromatic to pungent). There is also a similar range of effects on human health. Some CH compounds have a narcotic effect, at least in high concentrations, and others irritate the mucous membrane, or are more or less poisonous. Certain, so called aromatic CH compounds such as benzene are categorised as carcinogenic. At normal atmospheric concentrations, CH compounds are of particular relevance in relation to the formation of smog, whose main constituent is ozone.



The chassis includes the following elements:
Wheel suspension (axles).
Shock absorbers.
Wheels (rims and tyres).
The chassis creates a connection between the bodywork and the road, and its character is responsible for both the comfort of the vehicle and its road holding performance. Can manufacturers are constantly trying to find the balance between safe road-holding and corresponding comfort of the vehicle.
The problem is that one does not actually exclude the other, but they do significantly influence each other. On the one hand, a stiff chassis gives a high level of driving safety, (good traction, directional stability, road holding, speed of reaction), albeit always at the expense of comfort.


Chassis geometry

Chassis geometry includes camber, tracking, and caster, and depending on the vehicle also rake. Changing or adjusting the chassis geometry can often have a detrimental effect, for example changes to steering force or impaired straight line running.


Clearance certificate

Tyre sizes and rims which are not entered in the vehicle’s documentation many only be used after a clearance certificate has been issued. This will be issued by the vehicle manufacturer or tyre manufacturer, or another expert, thus allowing the tyres ad rims to be fitted.



CLIP ON, FIX and FLASH are all tyre references for rim bases which are side-split or Lemmerz contoured without closing rings, side rings or cross shoulder rings. SIT makes fitting easier: Continental were the first to bring out the first major innovation from the forklift area in the shape of the Snap In Tyre, which represented significant time savings across the board. The patented SIT construction comes without any loose rim parts. This results in optimal positioning of the rim, cost savings due to the lack of loose parts, plus easy and fast fitting.


Coefficient of adhesion

The coefficient of adhesion indicates the roughness of various pairings of materials between the underside (e.g of tyres) and substrate (e.g. road). It is indicated by the Greek letter µ.
Low values indicate a smooth, slippery, low friction pair of materials. With higher values there is a greater frictional force to overcome.


Coefficient of friction

The coefficient of friction of a tyre is not constant, rather it varies depending on temperature, surface pressure in the contact area, slip and numerous other factors.


Commercial vehicle tyres

Commercial vehicle tyres are tyres which have been specially developed for vans, lorries and buses. The main priorities are economy and a long life span.


Contact Area

The area of the tyre which actually touches the surface is known as the contact area. With a car, this is roughly the size of a postcard.


ContiSeal tyres

Tyres in the ContiSeal range are different in that they have a viscous, sticky coating - between the shoulders on the inside of the tyre.
If a foreign object penetrates a ContiSeal tyre, the viscous coating surrounds it and prevents any loss of air. If the foreign object falls out, the hole is sealed off by the sticky, viscous coating.
You don’t have to interrupt your journey to change the wheel, you can just go on to the nearest tyre specialist.
Please note: ContiSeal technology only seals off holes up to 5 mm.
Caution: The viscous coating is not suitable as a permanent repair after a puncture. After any damage to a tyre you should consult a tyre specialist, who will check if the tyre can be repaired.
A tyre pressure monitoring system in the vehicle is required when using ContiSeal tyres.


ContiSilent tyres

ContiSilent technology lowers perceived road noise from the tyres for car occupants. Here the tyres are equipped with a foam on the inside, which keeps its shape even when temperatures change dramatically, thus minimising generation of noise.
Road noise inside the vehicle can be reduced by up to 9 dB (depending on the type of driving, speed and road surface).



These tyres have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements for Daimler-Chrysler.

We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
Please note: The tyres can also be used on other vehicles.


Cord plies

Cord plies are threads made of rayon, nylon or polyester. They are woven and incorporated into the rubber of the tyre adding considerable strength. Running these cords from bead to bead determines the type of tyre construction, which can be diagonal or radial tyres.


CP Tyres

CP tyres have been developed for camping vehicles such as mobile homes and are fitted with a reinforced sub structure. Equivalent to C tyres in terms of construction, CP tyres therefore have a high load bearing capacity. Due to considerably higher air pressure, CP tyres have higher load bearing capacity and at the same time, greater protection from mechanical damage. This reinforcement is done over several layers as in 205/55 R16 99 CP V tyres. This protects the tyres during a long stationary period on a base plate.
Caution: RF-/XL tyres and LT tyre are not C tyres, even if they resemble them with regard to size and load index. Therefore you should check the paperwork for your vehicle or ask the manufacturer which tyres you can use.
In contrast, the abbreviation “CP” stands for “Camping”. This refers to C tyres which are optimised for the particular requirements of mobile homes, such as long standing times.


Cross aquaplaning

Cross aquaplaning can occur when cornering on a wet road surface. In this dangerous situation, the vehicle suddenly loses contact with the road. The lateral centrifugal force is so powerful that the vehicle eventually skids out sideways.


DA Tyres: Downgraded tyres

DA tyres are tyres which have some visual faults and are correspondingly ”downgraded” by the manufacturer. So they may be marked with a stamp for example.
These visual faults have absolutely no effect whatsoever on performance or properties.


Diagonal tyres

In diagonal ply tyres, the cords run at an angle to the direction of travel. This means the side wall of the tyre is more stable than in radial tyres. However, this leads to a smaller contact area, as well as a reduction in stability when cornering. Whereas diagonal tyres are still used today with motorbikes, agricultural and industrial equipment, they have been almost completely replaced by radial tyres for cars and commercial vehicles.
Depending on the design they can be used with an inner tube (TT) or without an inner tube (TL).


Differential gear

Differential gears or differentials equalise the differing revolution rates of the wheels on the drive axes.
Differing rates of revolution of wheels inevitably occur as the wheels on one axle have to cover different distances when cornering. Here the wheel on the outside of the bend always goes more quickly than the wheel on the inside. In most cases, a so-called bevel gear differential equalises the revolutions on the drive axle. Where built in, a limited slip differential prevents the wheels from spinning freely and directs the power to the wheel with the better level of traction.


Dimension indications on tyres

The dimensions shown on the side wall of a tyre indicate type of construction, size, maximum speed and load capacity. In general a vehicle must only be fitted with tyres as indicated in the vehicle licencing documents (or registration certificate part 1). As the registration certificate part 1 (since October 2005) only shows tyre size, the alternative tyre options should be taken from the CoC (Certification of Conformity). There are, however, a number of exceptions in this regulation. So there are a number of cars (mainly old ones) where 82 series tyres are specified. As these are virtually identical in size to 80 series tyres, both types may be used, according to a statement form the Federal Ministry of Transport. No change or addition to the vehicle documentation is needed, as long as speed and load index is the same or higher than indicated in the paperwork. This allowance is also valid in the opposite direction – 82 series tyres may also be used instead of 80’s. This was determined by the Federal Ministry of Transport in 1990 in §36 of the StVZO (German Road Traffic Regulations) Appendix 9.


Directional tyres

Directional tyres should only be fitted to the car in the direction of travel intended. This direction of travel is identified by an arrow and the word “rotation” on the side wall.
After fitting on the rims this gives two “left” and two “right tyres. Directional tyres often have a tread which looks like a “V”. This type of tread pattern has the following advantages:

  • lower level of road noise
  • better traction in the wet
  • greater aquaplaning safety


Discontinued model, discontinued tyres

Discontinued lines may have an older DOT number (date of manufacture) and are often no longer in production.


DOT number

The abbreviation DOT stands for the US Department of Transportation and in many countries, it is valid and the legally required approval in the tyre industry. DOT means that the tyre meets or even exceeds the safety requirements of the Department of transportation.
1. The tyre meets or exceeds the safety requirements of the Department of Transportation.
2. Place of manufacture and plant code (assigned by the DOT).
3. Size code.
4. Optional manufacturer’s code to identify the brand and tyre properties.
5. Date of manufacture.
There are a number of indicators relating to tyre construction which are located on the side wall in the form of numeric codes. Generally, however, this refers to the tyre’s date of manufacture. The age of the tyre is indicated, encrypted. So, for example, “327” could mean week 32 of 1997. As of 2000, the week and month of manufacture of a tyre have been show as four digits. So the last four digits show the week and year in which the tyre was made, for example “1602” means week 16 of the year 2002.


Double marking

On light trucks or van tyres, also known as C tyres, there are often two figures for the load index shown on the side of the tyre, for example 205/55 R16 C 98/96H.
These two numbers indicate the load capacity for single tyres (98) and twin tyres (96). In this case the maximum load capacity of a tyre would be 750 kg for a single tyre, or 710 kg for twin tyres (with tyre pressure of 2.5 bar). The lower load index in the two numbers always stands for the maximum load capacity for twin tyres.



Drainage refers to the deflection of water by the tread. Tyres must have good drainage performance in order to guarantee safe driving performance in wet conditions. Using computer simulation, the water deflection speed of a certain tread can be calculated, and the tyres ability to combat aquaplaning optimised with linear or lateral drainage.



DriveGuard - It's a tyre with a reinforced sidewall from Bridgestone tire manufacturer. Additionally, the tyre has a special design that keeps the friction as low as possible with a defect and thus restrains the heat. The tyres, which are made with this technology, you can drive up to 50 miles distance up to 50 mph even if the pressure would be lost (eg, due to the nail.)


DSB: Diagonal Serrated Band

Special design of side wall lettering. The lettering is serrated inside the edge.


DT1, G1

These tyre markings are part of a Michelin specification and signify that the tyres should be fitted per axle. Tyres with different markings should not be combined with each other.



Dueler is the Bridgestone umbrella term for all offroad-profiles


E, A on Dunlop tyres

The letter “E” on Dunlop tyres stands for tyres which have been enhanced to minimise rolling resistance, fitted as original equipment to some cars. An A stands for a special Mercedes design.



A successful Goodyear product range of high-performance sports tyres.


EAN: European Article Number

The European Article Number (EAN) gives every tyre model a unique article number.


ECE 30

ECE 30 refers to a European guideline which is documented on the tyre by the E number. The E number is specific to every tyre design and confirms that the tyre in question has met the test criteria specified in ECE 30. In Germany, since 1998, only tyres produced after this date which meet the test criteria can be sold. Amongst other things, the ECE 30 protects the consumer from serious safety faults which can arise from cheap imports, for example.


ECE Test mark

Point 4 (Tyre classification) of §36 StVZO (German Road Traffic Regulations) states the following:
Tyres on vehicles with a top speed of over 40 km/h must be furnished with information such as tyre size, type of construction, load capacity, speed category and date of manufacture (or re-treading date). In addition, since 1998, the ECE identification must be included.



Eco-impact is a manufacturer term for energy saving tyres from the brand Pirelli. These tyres are designed for environmentally friendly performance (classed as “Green Performance” by Pirelli).



Ecopia tyres from Bridgestone combine low rolling resistance with outstanding safety and performance in wet weather.


Emergency running properties



ENWL: Extra Narrow White Lettering

Abbreviation on the side wall of a tyre. These tyres have narrow white letters.


ETRTO: European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation

The European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation (ETRTO) has the following regulatory objectives:
- Promotion of a standardisation of norms, in order to achieve transparency with regard to fitting and use of tyres, rims and valves in Europe
- establishment of common guidelines for measurement, load and pressure regulations and usage
- Promotion of unimpeded exchange of technical information regarding tyres, rims and valves.
In view of the fact that tyres make a considerable contribution to road safety, the ETRTO works with national and international organisations and legislative bodies in order to make suitable recommendations.


EU tyre label, European tyre labelling regulations

Since the 1st of November 2012, the EU tyre label has rated tyres with respect to fuel efficiency, braking on wet surfaces and external road noise.This means the consumer can find out about these features before buying a tyre.The label does not provide other key data such as driving stability, wear and tear or braking on dry roads.


European noise protection regulations

When a tyre is provided with a noise protection approval number, it meets the requirements of regulation 2001/43/EG, and the new noise limits which apply in European countries.



The identifier “F” can stand for Ford or Ferrari specification. These tyres have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements of the car manufacturer.
We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
Please note: The tyres can also be used on other vehicles.


Fine balancing

In fine balancing, the wheels are balanced directly on the vehicle. Any remaining imbalances arising from changes to wheel centring, hubs and brake discs are dealt with.



Flank is a synonym for the side wall of the tyre. It effects the driving characteristics and comfort.


Flank height

Flank height is in proportion to the tyre width. For tyre size 175/70R13 the 70 indicates the as a percentage based on the tyre width of 175 mm.



Flexing is the periodic compression of the tyre. It distorts the side wall and the shoulder, releasing heat and creating additional rolling resistance. If tyre pressure is too low, the tyre flexes more and the tyre overheats.


Foam-in-Tyre Technology (FIT)

The foam-in-tyre technology developed by Dunlop uses a foam ring inside the tyre. This reduces road noise significantly, without negatively affecting mileage, rolling resistance or high speed stability.


Freedom of movement

The freedom of movement of the wheel must be guaranteed at all times. This means that tyres and wheels must never be allowed to touch the chassis or components such as brakes or the steering tie rod.
When re-fitting with a larger wheel / tyre combination, it may be necessary to extend the wheel arches.



When a vehicle moves and stops, it causes friction between the tyres and the road. The tyre surface is worn off during this, and there is a residue, this is visible on the road as a skid mark for example.
The following factors effect the level of friction: Road surface characteristics, driving speed, distribution of weight, tyre pressure, temperature and tyre properties.


Front+Rear Marking

Front + rear marked tyres are tyres which can be fitted to the front or rear rims according to the manufacturer.


FSL: Flange shield

The flange shield is a rubber bead on the outer edge of the tyre. This flange is intended to stop the rim getting scratched on the kerb while parking for example,
The following codes are also used by tyre manufacturers:

  • MFS: With rim protector
  • MFSL: With flange shield
  • RPB: Rim protection bar
  • FP: Fringe protector
  • FR: Tyre rib


Fuel consumption

Essentially, car buyers judge the efficiency of a vehicle according to the fuel consumption data, This figure is determined by a variety of factors. These include the weight of the vehicle, efficiency of the engine, the front surface of the vehicle,driving speed, engine speed and accelerator settings. Fuel consumption isn’t just an interesting subject in terms of economics, but also from an ecological viewpoint. The technical competence and the development efforts of a manufacturer are reflected in the level of fuel consumption of their vehicles. Car manufacturers have to give three sets of figures for fuel consumption: urban, extra-urban and combined, whereby 36.8% of consumption is urban and 63.2% is extra-urban. Testing starts with the basic urban cycle and a cold start at 20-30° C. After measurement of emissions and consumption under the same conditions, the fuel consumption is calculated on the basis of exhaust emissions, including CO2.



Tyres marked with a “G” have been specially developed in cooperation with the car manufacturer Opel. These tyres have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements of the car manufacturer.
We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
Please note: The tyres can also be used on other vehicles.


G/S: Golden Stripe

Special design of the side wall. Tyres with a gold stripe on the side wall.



The expression “Grip” describes the friction between the contact surface of the tyre and the surface under the tyre.
So the grip is the ability of the tread rubber compound to stick to the road as firmly as possible, whereby experts differentiate between the macro and micro roughness of the road surface. Grip in the wet and especially on snow is achieved via sophisticated lamella technology and special rubber compounds.


GRNX: Michelin Green X

Michelin’s own term for energy saving tyres.


GW: Gold Wing

Tyres specially developed for Honda Gold Wing motorbikes.



Tyres specially manufactured for Harley-Davidson.


H/T: Highway Terrain

Highway Terrain (H/T) tyres were developed to give the driver the best possible conditions on both wet and dry road surfaces. They are characterised by excellent comfort, low road noise and optimal driving properties.
What makes HT tyres special is they can also be used well off-road to a certain extent. Performance has been optimised for roughly 20% off-road and 80% on-road. These tyres are a good option for anyone who takes their SUV into the woods now and again, or occasionally goes off-road.


High speed capability

In order to determine high speed capability, a tyre must maintain its maximum speed (speed index) for an hour on a roller dynamometer. In the next test, the speed is increased by 10 km/h every ten minutes, to test when the tyre fails.


High speed strength

At high speeds, there is an enormous centrifugal force affecting the tyre. In order to withstand this, the carcass is firmly bound together by nylon fabric.



Homologation refers to the technical authorisation of a tyre for a certain car model of car. The whole authorisation process is very strictly controlled by the car manufacturers, and around 60 individual checks come into consideration. Every authorisation signifies a confirmation of quality for the tyre manufacturer. In Germany, where the manufacturers are particularly demanding, Michelin are authorised for all manufacturers for almost every profile.


Hydrodynamic effect

Hydrodynamic effect refers to the accelerated flow of water created by arrow shaped treads arranged in the direction of travel.



Even very minor irregularities in the thickness of material or other issues such as uneven wear can cause tiny imbalances in the tyre. When the wheels revolve, these create an imbalance, and the tyre no longer spins evenly. In most cases, this can be equalised by a counter weight on the rim.


IMS: Instant Mobility System

The Instant Mobility System (IMS) was developed by the manufacturer Dunlop. IMS is a puncture kit which consists of a container with a sealant and a compressor. Vehicles with IMS do not need a spare wheel, saving fuel due to the reduction in weight.
So minor damage to tyres can be fixed by the driver, and small punctures can be sealed. After any damage to a tyre, it should always be checked out by an expert.



Inch is a unit of length (“) which is used particularly in the English speaking world. For example, inches are used for the diameter of rims.
For conversion to metric:
1 inch = 25.4 millimetres
1 millimetre = 0,03937 inches


Inner liner

The inner liner is the name given to the rubber layer which ensure air tightness on the inside of the tyre. In tubeless tyres, it fulfils the role of an inner tube.


Interlinking effect

So that winter tyres can really “bite” into snow, they have edges and grooves like lamellas, which compress the snow into a “tooth rail”. This gives rise to an interlinking of tyre and road surface.



Intermediates is a motor sport classification for racing tyres with a tread cut on the spot by hand, which provide the best compromise on damp or drying road surfaces.



Tyres with this abbreviation have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements of the car manufacturer Jaguar.
We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
Please note: The tyres can also be used on other vehicles.


K1, KA, K, K2

Ferrari / Maserati specifications - these tyres have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements of the car manufacturer. K1 and K2 are new rubber compounds and modern tread patterns, these should not be fitted alongside old tread patterns.
Please note:The tyres can also be used on other vehicles.


kPa: Kilopascal

kPa (Kilopascal) is a unit of measure for air pressure. 1 kPa = 0,01 bar 1 bar = 100 kPa



Tyres with this designation have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements of the car manufacturer Lamborghini.
We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
Please note: The tyres can also be used on other vehicles.



Lamellas are fine notches in the tread which act like little micro-grabbers. In winter tyres, for example, they increase traction when driving and braking. A good number of lamellas is an important condition for good grip in wintery road conditions. These provide optimal interlinking with the road surface. In modern lamella systems, the lamellas become stiff under pressure, thus ensuring better driving performance. Compared to summer tyres, this means winter tyres have

  • better grip
  • on ice and snow, plus better braking behaviour
  • , improved traction
  • , more precise communication with the vehicle when steering
  • , plus safer and generally better driving performance.


Lateral run-out

A rim can be affected by lateral run out due to external factors, for example, driving quickly over a kerb stone, or an accident. The rim is then warped in the direction of travel.


LI: Load Index

Load Index is generally a two digit number on the end of the size classification, e.g. 175/70 R 13 82 T. The number 82 indicates the load index of the tyre. For example, Load Index 82 means 475 kg load per tyre.


LK: Bolt circle diameter

The bolt circle on a rim consists of the holes through which the rims are attached to the vehicle using wheel nuts or bolts. You get the bolt circle diameter by measuring from one hole to the opposite hole. With 5 hole rims you can select one of the two furthest holes.


LLR: Low Rolling Resistance

The manufacturer Dunlop call their low roll resistance tyres "Low Rolling Resistance" (LLR). Please note: Tyres optimised for rolling resistance are also available from other manufacturers e.g. the Michelin GRNX range.


Low profile tyres

The profile of a tyre describes the ratio of the side height to the width of the contact area. The balloon tyres commonly used in the 20’s with a height to width ratio of almost 1:1 gave way to low profile tyres (up to 0.15 to 1) a long time ago.
The term low profile tyre applies when the side height is less than 80% of the tyre width. This definition was created in the 70’s, and much has changed in the car industry since then. So nowadays the most common tyre on mid-range cars is size 205/55R16, which can no longer really be regarded as “low profile”
There is no official definition for low profile tyres. It is fair to say that tyres in the range 50 to 55 could be classed as low profile, depending on the tyre width. These tyres frequently have a flange shield.


Low resistance tyres

Tyres with low rolling resistance thanks to new compound technologies are called low resistance tyres. The lower the rolling resistance, the lower the fuel consumption.



Special tyre id. for original Pirelli tyres for Land Rover.



These tyres have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements of the car manufacturer Lotus.
We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
Please note: The tyres can also be used on other vehicles.


LT: Light Truck

Reinforced tyres for commercial vehicles such as vans.


M+S, M&S, M.S.: Mud and snow

The letters M+S identify winter tyres and winter-ready all weather tyres. On some products there is also a snowflake symbol. M+S tyres with a snowflake meet a high quality standard. Their particular qualities come into their own at temperatures of 7° C. Summer tyres lose grip and hold at low temperatures because of their rubber compound, leading to increased braking distances, on dry or wet road surfaces. Braking distances on snow are up to 20% shorter than with summer tyres. With wide base tyres this effect comes into play at 10° C. Moreover ABS, ESP or TCS do not help here, as they are purely electronic aids. They cannot replace winter tyres. However, it is important that winter tyres have adequate tread depth. If this is under 4 mm, then the risk of aquaplaning increases significantly, traction and braking performance fall noticeably, and driving properties only reach the same level as summer tyres. Since 2010 it has been compulsory to fit winter tyres in wintery road conditions. Winter tyres are more suitable for wintery road conditions because of their special cold-resistant rubber compound. This means the car grips the road perfectly even at the lowest temperatures. The tread profile which is perfectly adapted to poor weather conditions also minimises the risk of aquaplaning and gives perfect grip on ice and snow. Larger grooves in the tread and extra lamellas guarantee additional stability when moving quickly between snowy, wet, or dry roads. We have the right winter tyres for your car. Please also refer to ABS, ESP and TCS



The abbreviation M/C indicates that the tyre in question is for a motorbike. This designation is compulsory in America, and also applies to scooters.



Tyres with this designation have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements of the car manufacturer BMW. They are designed as original equipment for the M3 series.
We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.Please note: The tyres can also be used on other vehicles.


Main groove

The main grooves are usually located in the middle of a tyre, and the wear indicator is also located here.


Manufacturer tie-in

Manufacturer tie-in means that the car manufacturer only authorises certain tyre makers for a model. Tyre makers and tyre types authorised by the manufacturer are shown in the vehicle registration documents, or stated in a wheel report in the case of a subsequent change. (See also General Operating Licence). Since the start of 2000, any manufacturer tie-ins for cars have been abolished. Regardless of any entry in the documentation, every tyre maker is authorised. The exception is pure ZR tyres, these require the authorisation from the manufacturer and an entry in the documentation.



Matching is part of the tyre fitting process which helps the wheels turn in the best possible way. Any irregularities in the roundness of the wheels and tyres are combined in such a way that they more or less balance each other out. Matching is carried out before the actual wheel balancing.



Tyres with this designation have been developed and manufactured according to certain specifications and requirements of the car manufacturer McLaren.
We recommend fitting four of the same tyres, so that the tyres can deliver optimal performance.
Please note: The tyres can also be used on other vehicles.



Tyres with this code were specially developed as original equipment for the Maserati Quattroporte.



Mileage means the active life span of a tyre before it has to be replaced. This depends on the construction and quality of the tyre, as well as the type of vehicle, type of driving, UV radiation, storage and many other factors. The tyres on the drive axle lock up more quickly, as they are driven more strongly by the increased slip.
The following applies across the whole EU: The legally required minimum tread depth is 1.6 mm.


Minimum tread depth

For cars, vans, lorries and motorbikes, a minimum tread depth of 1.6 mm applies right across Europe. This minimum depth must be present over the whole tyre contact area. When a tyre approaches this legally required minimum tread depth, braking distance in the wet increases, and there is a higher risk of aquaplaning. The braking distance when aquaplaning with a tyre with the minimum tread depth of 1.6 mm is double that of a brand new tyre. For safety reasons, summer tyres should be replaced when tread depth is 2 mm, wide base tyres when it is 3 mm and winter tyres when it is 4 mm.